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  1. Rugby World Cup 12222
  2. Values, Identity, and Equality in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Japan | brill
  3. Values, Identity, and Equality in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Japan
  4. Background & Rise of Tokugawa Shogunate

He later allied himself with the powerful forces of Oda Nobunaga and then Toyotomi Hideyoshi, expanding his land holdings via a successful attack on the Shrewd at Hirohito was emperor of Japan from until his death in He took over at a time of rising democratic sentiment, but his country soon turned toward ultra-nationalism and militarism.

Much of the fighting took place in what is now northeastern China.

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The Russo-Japanese War was also a naval conflict, with ships exchanging fire in the The explosion wiped out 90 percent of the city and immediately killed 80, people; tens of thousands more would later A treaty with Japan in had assured free immigration, In , after more than years in existence, this highly stratified system collapsed and This Day In History.

Tokugawa Shoguns Close Japan to Foreign Influence Suspicious of foreign intervention and colonialism, the Tokugawa regime acted to exclude missionaries and eventually issued a complete ban on Christianity in Japan. Tokugawa Period: Economy and Society The Neo-Confucian theory that dominated Japan during the Tokugawa Period recognized only four social classes—warriors samurai , artisans, farmers and merchants—and mobility between the four classes was officially prohibited.


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Meiji Restoration As agricultural production lagged in comparison to the mercantile and commercial sectors, samurai and daimyo did not fare as well as the merchant class. Tokugawa Ieyasu.

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Other samurai, whose fixed stipends were losing value over the generations, began actively to farm in order to generate additional income. But with food prices rising more slowly than other prices, this was only a half-measure. Ultimately, many samurai voluntarily discarded the privileged class status they enjoyed, and left the service of their daimyo lords and re-registered as common people, in order to be able to engage in small business or the production of cottage goods, like sandals and baskets, types of commercial activities that were prohibited to samurai because they were beneath the dignity of the class.

Values, Identity, and Equality in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Japan | brill

All of this generated bitter resentment. The samurai, seeing their class -- the elite of society -- fall into poverty while the merchants -- officially social scum -- rising rapidly in wealth, became bitter enemies of the merchants, and of merchant values and culture. It was these features of culture which the samurai, steeped in the austerity of the bushido warrior codes and Zen Buddhism deplored.

Urban centers of conspicuous consumption, such as the "pleasure quarters" of shops, theaters, and brothels, began to appear in all major cities -- most notably Edo the entrance to Edo's famous Yoshiwara pleasure district is pictured at left. A literature focused on romance began to spread the merchant class at all levels was remarkably literate in Tokugawa Japan , styles in clothes became increasingly lavish, and a cult of sexual indulgence grew in importance Japan had never been as prudish or moralistic as most cultures, something expressed in the relaxed non-moralistic character of the native religion of Shinto.

Values, Identity, and Equality in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Japan

The role played by "courtesans" young women, often highly trained in polite arts, who granted favors of companionship and sex for money; pictured below became a highly visible feature of the urban culture of the merchant class. The life of the urban pleasure quarters became known as ukiyo , the "floating life," and themes of this new culture became an emblematic focus of Tokugawa art and literature.

Among the most famous features of this merchant culture was the innovation of a new form of art -- the woodblock print -- and many brilliant artists of the era captured the spirit of the new merchant culture -- as well as the spirit of many traditional Japanese values, in the brilliant prints of the era, such as those which appear on this page. One of the most prominent influences on merchant culture during the Tokugawa was the rise of a form of theatrical staging known as Kabuki -- a type of operatic popular theater that feature lively action, sensational plots, and colorful costume and stage make-up.

Noh drama was somber and spare, and appealed to the aesthetic of the samurai class, resonating as it did with the values of Zen Buddhism.

During the Tokugawa era, Noh was regarded as a classical form of theater. It had originated as early as the thirteenth century and been patronized by shoguns and daimyos for many centuries.

Background & Rise of Tokugawa Shogunate

Interest in Noh was regarded as a sign of superior taste and it remains so today. Kabuki theater was far more raucous, musical, and fun. Kabuki originated just at the start of the Tokugawa era as a song-and-dance act, performed by female dance troupes. Daring and lewd, the shogunate viewed these early stagings as a threat to public order and banned female dancers from performing them. Courtney th Century 01 - Elephant Song. Culture, Society and the Media. Courtney th Century 02 - Monsoon. Understanding Society, Culture, and Television.


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